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Glossary of Industry Terms

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Gas

One of the three states of matter: liquid, solid and gas. It is characterized by having neither shape nor specific volume. It will expand to fill the entire container in which it is held.

 

Gas Cap

A layer of free gas on top of the oil zone in an underground reservoir.

 

Gas Controller

A person or persons responsible for monitoring and controlling daily operations of gas systems and ensuring the safety of gathering, transmission and distribution systems.

 

Gas Cycling

A petroleum recovery process that takes produced gas and condensate and injects it back into the reservoir to increase pressure and production of natural gas liquids.

 

Gas Hydrates

Crystals of water and methane molecules found in vast quantities on ocean floors and the Arctic.

 

Gas in Place ( GIP )

The volume of gas in a reservoir at any given time, calculated at standard temperature and pressure conditions. It includes both recoverable and non-recoverable gas.

 

Gas Meter

An instrument that measures ( may record ) the volume of gas that has passed through it.

 

Gas Pool

The term ‘pool’ is generally synonymous with the term ‘reservoir’.

 

Gas Processing Plant

A facility which performs one or more of the following: removing liquefiable hydrocarbons from wet gas or well-head gas; removing undesirable gaseous and particulate elements from natural gas; removing water or moisture from the gas stream.

Gas Reservoir

A porous and permeable rock formation in which natural gas accumulates.

 

Gas Transmission Systems

Pipelines that carry natural gas at high pressure from producing areas to consuming areas.

 

Gasification

The process of returning liquefied natural gas to a vapourous or gaseous state by increasing the temperature and decreasing the pressure.

 

Gasoline

One of the lightest products of fractional distillation.

 

Gathering Lines

Pipelines that move raw petroleum products from wellheads to processing plants and transmission facilities.

 

Gathering System

A system of small-diameter plastic or steel pipes ( gathering lines ) transporting natural gas from producing wells to field facilities.

 

Geochemistry

The science of chemistry as applied to rocks and minerals. Geochemists analyze the contents of subsurface rocks for the presence of organic matter associated with oil deposits.

 

Geological Trap

Any geological structure that stops the migration of natural gas, crude oil and water through subsurface rocks, causing the hydrocarbons to accumulate into pools in reservoir rock.

 

Geologist

A person trained in the study of the Earth's crust. Petroleum geologists search for traps that could contain petroleum, recommend drilling locations and analyse drilling results.

 

Geophones ( or Jugs )

Sensitive vibration-detecting devices used in seismic surveys. Marine versions are known as hydrophones.

Geophysical Survey

A searching and mapping of the subsurface structure of the earth's crust using geophysical methods to locate likely reservoir structures capable of producing commercial quantities of natural gas and/or crude oil.

 

Geophysics

The science dealing with the relationships between the physical features of the Earth and forces that produce them. It includes the study of seismology and magnetism.

 

Glycol Dehydrators

A facility which uses a glycol-based process to remove water from produced natural gas. They are often located in the field and used before processing. Water removal is needed to prevent corrosion and ice formations in pipelines.

 

Greenhouse Effect

The warming of the Earth's surface caused by the presence of carbon dioxide and other gases, known as greenhouse gases that trap the heat of the sun in the earth’s atmosphere.

 

Greenhouse Gases

Gases that trap heat near the Earth's surface. These include carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and water vapor. These gases occur naturally ( as a result of ocean currents, cloud cover, volcanoes ) and through human activities ( such as the burning of fossil fuels ).

 

Groundwater

Water found below the earth's surface that supplies freshwater to wells and springs.

 

Gun Perforator

A device at the end of a drill string that fires and creates small holes through the casing, cement and into the producing formation of a well. The holes provide channels for gas and/or crude oil to flow into the well.

 

Gusher

A well that comes in with such great pressure that the oil or gas blows out of the wellhead like a geyser. Gushers are now rare because of improved drilling technology, including the use of drilling mud to control the downhole pressure.