Glossary of Industry Terms
A distribution pipeline that serves as a common conduit for more than one service pipeline. Its dimensions and operating pressure can be similar to those in a transmission system.
Gas obtained by the destructive distillation of coal, the thermal decomposition of oil, or the reaction of steam passing through a bed of heated coal or coke. Examples are coal gases, coke or oven gases, producer gas, blast furnace gas, blue (water) gas, or carbureted water gas. Also known as syngas.
A specific crude oil, usually a blend of crudes with defined properties such as API gravity, sulphur content, etc., used as a reference mark for pricing other crude oils. Typical benchmark crudes are West Texas Intermediate ( WTI ), Brent ( North Sea ), Arab Light and Edmonton Par crude. As the price of the benchmark crude fluctuates, the price of other crude oils from the same geographic area move up and down, depending on their properties relative to the benchmark and the supply and demand. These are also known as benchmark crude.
Maximum Efficient Rate ( MER )The maximum rate at which natural gas and crude oil can be produced from a reservoir without excessive decline of its flow rate or a loss in its ultimate production.
Measurement-While-Drilling ( MWD ) Tool
A tool that transmits information from downhole measuring devices during drilling.
Medium Crude Oil
Liquid petroleum with a specific gravity between that of light oil, 0.875 (30.2° API) and heavy oil, 0.92 (22.3° API).
Methane ( CH4 )
Methane consists of one carbon atom and four hydrogen atoms. It is the largest component of natural gas. Methane remains in a gaseous state at relatively low temperatures and pressures. It is produced when organic matter decomposes
The term used to name the processing, storage and transportation sector of the energy industry.
The natural movement of natural gas, crude oil and/or water through porous and permeable rock.
Mineral RightsThe rights to explore for and produce the resources below the surface. In the petroleum industry, mineral rights can also be referred to as “land.”
A method of tertiary recovery of oil involving the injection of carbon dioxide, or solvents such as ethane, propane and butane into a reservoir which then mix with the oil to reduce surface tension and viscosity and make them flow more readily.
A hole that is drilled to the side of the wellbore to hold the next joint of drill pipe to be used. When this joint is pulled out and screwed onto the drill string, another joint of pipe replaces it.
A specialized fluid mixed at the drill site and pumped down the center of the drill string to return up the annulus on the outside of the drill string. It prevents blowouts, removes the drill cuttings from the hole and lubricates the bit.
A downhole motor that is powered by the force of the drilling mud pushed through it by the force provided by mud pumps at the surface.
A technique whereby several horizontal wells are drilled from a single vertical, directional or horizontal well bore.
Multiple Zone Well CompletionCompletion of a well in a way that obtains production from several different formations.